A computer is a great invention of the modern technology. It is generally a machine which has capability to store large data value in its memory. Computer is a new technology which is used in offices, banks, educational institutions, etc. It works better and quicker than man. It has a machine (CPU), a Monitor, Keyboard and a Mouse to operate it. We can even watch the cinemas on the computer.

Full form of Computer:

  • * C – Commonly
  • * O – Operated
  • * M – Machine
  • * P – Particularly
  • * U – Used for
  • * T – Technical
  • * E – Education
  • * R – Research

The first mechanical computer, created by “Charles Babbage” in 1822. The early British computer known as the EDSAC is considered to be the first stored program electronic computer. The computer performed its first calculation on May 6, 1949 and was the computer that ran the first graphical computer game, nicknamed "Baby".

The first computer company was the Electronic Controls Company and was founded in 1949 by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. The Z1 was created by German Konrad Zuse in his parents living room between 1936 and 1938. It is considered to be the first electro-mechanical binary programmable computer, and the first really functional modern computer.

The Colossus was the first electric programmable computer, developed by Tommy Flowers, and first demonstrated in December 1943.

Intel introduces the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004 on November 15, 1971. MIT introduces the Whirlwind machine on March 8, 1955, a revolutionary computer that was the first digital computer with magnetic core RAM and real-time graphics, this is the first computer with Ram.

5 Generation of Computers:

  • – Vacuum Tubes
  • – Transistors
  • – Integrated Circuits
  • – Microprocessors
  • – Artificial Intelligence

Major Components of a Computer:

A computer consists of five components.They are the input unit, the output unit, the control unit, the memory unit, the arithmetic unit.


Hardware is a term, which refers to the physical components of a computer system (electronic or electrical), which are used for processing data. Such components are classified according to their functional use within a computer system. The term compute including the central processing unit.

Computer hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, hard disk drive (HDD), graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard, and so on, all of which are physical objects that are tangible. In contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware.


A set of instructions that directs a computer's hardware to perform a task is called a program, or software program. Software comprises the entire set of programs, procedures, and routines associated with the operation of a computer system.

Types of software

Although, the range of software available today is vast and varied, mostly software can be divided into two major categories:
1. System Software
2. Application Software

System software controls a computer's internal functioning, chiefly through an operating system, and also controls such peripherals as monitors, printers, and storage devices. Utilities and compilers are also parts of system software.

Application software is a set of one or more programs, designed to solve a specific problem, or to do a specific task.

Programming Languages:

In general, there are 256 of programming languages exist in the programming world. Programming languages are classified in many ways. The most commonly used programming languages are
C-Language, Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Java, Php and dotnet.

Note: In programming world, the line codes are called syntax.

S.No Language Year Inventor
1 C 1969 & 1973 Dennis M.Ritchie
2 Java 2010 James Gosling
3 Python 1991 Guido van Rossum
4 PHP 1994 Rasmus Lerdorf
5 HTML 1990 Tim Berners-Lee
6 Java Script 1995 Brendan Eich
7 Pascal 1970 Niklaus Wirth
8 C++ 1983 Bjarne Stroustrup